One of the reasons I like Frans der Waal books so much is that he leads us to consider how we animals, especially us mammals, are alike in our talents. One of the great lessons taught by Einstein and Susan Oyama is that theory constrains what we look for empirically, so we had better pay attention to our theoretical lackings. Most people today understand that humans and other primates are really quite similar in our makeup and functioning. Some understand that we also share a good deal with cetaceans, elephants and dogs. Some scientists study social animals for critical behaviors. And a couple of assiduous scientists studied hours of video of sun bears who are rarely social and found, lo and behold, mirroring where we might least expect it given current theoretical leanings. Oh boy!
Sun bears live in southeast Asia and are known to prefer to live in solitude except for mating and parenting. I am not sure how they find each other wandering the jungle all alone, but sometimes they do and mate, then go their own way again. The females bear cubs and they stay together for a couple of years and then they also seek their sweet solitude. In Malaysia they have a refuge for sun bears that have been injured or are somehow unable to survive in the wild. They keep them in a large reserve but they still meet each other more in captivity than would otherwise be the case. And they videotape their encounters. Yes, they are not real sociable creatures and yes, they prefer solitude, but they still play around with each other and their play involves mimicking one another. Yes, that’s right, they mirror one another just like so many other more sociable animals do.
Remember that mirroring is an incredible social action (or if you don’t remember, read some past posts here like from 7/19/18 & 7/31/18). I see the theoretical difference between imitation and mirroring this way: imitation is a behavioral replication of an observed action with little mentation attached and mirroring is so much more because mirroring allows the empathic understanding of another’s mood and intent. At some point I wrote that the difference between imitation and mirroring is the difference between Skinner and Freud (although I prefer William James’ approach myself) or between surface behavior and inner dynamics.
To illustrate the difference, I long ago worked with a young autistic child who had virtually no expressive language and understood very, very little, like his name, the word ‘mama’ and maybe some foods. But he imitated all the time. If you pointed to something for him to look at, he would mimic your pointing while looking at you. Most amazingly, he could repeat any sentence you said with very good articulation but without any sense that it was meaningful. Pure and skillful echolalia, but not mirroring. This ability to process phonemes auditorially and translate those sounds into motor patterns indicated that key areas of his left auditory and motor cortex were functional along with, and this is important, his arcuate fasciculus, the long fiber tract that normally enables mirroring of speech and, probably along with other fiber tracts, gestures and emotional expressions (on the right side—see post 4/24/14 & 5/30/18).
So sun bears have some neuropsychological capabilities to mirror conspecifics and they use these in play and almost certainly, parenting. (Mating I am not so sure about—hormonally driven and how much courtship/bonding do they engage in?) Again, our mammalian heritage (see posts 11/2/18, 11/2/16) runs deep. Travel on and check out the NYT article here: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/22/science/sun-bears-faces-mimicry.html.