I actually finished reading Antonio Damasio’s book, The Strange Order of Things: Life, Feeling and the Making of Cultures, a few weeks back. While reading I thought of several things about which to blog but I was very busy on the farm. Now I have gone back over my highlights and will write a review about it, but I seem to have lost several of my ideas from before. Let that be a lesson to me—write down thoughts even if not enough time to work up a proper post.
If you have read any of Damasio’s other books or any of my posts about them here, you already know that he thinks that we conceptually slight feelings and emotions, that these are really the foundation of our mental life and that thinking follows feelings’ lead. This is quite in line with Susanne Langer’s notion that our minds are based upon feeling, thus the title of her magnum opus, Mind: An Essay on Human Feeling, so I really appreciate Damasio’s conceptualization. (He does not cite Langer; very, very few do and I find that regrettable). And in Strange Order he makes an even stronger statement, oh boy!
A couple of quotes will frame his view for us. Damasio sees “the roots of human cultures in nonhuman biology” and he finds that “the conventional contrast between affect and reason comes from a narrow conception of emotions and feelings”. His understanding rests upon the central importance of homeostasis, that function wherein life maintains itself within healthy parameters. Our emotions and their mental derivatives, feelings, are in his view our response to changes in homeostasis. For example, consider how our impulse to be sociable varies with our homeostatic status. When we are sociable, our homeostasis becomes more stable, and when we feel unsociable, our homeostasis grows more vulnerable. Thus, a key factor in the health and continued longevity of elders is their social contact. Remember as well that married people (really those in a close, stable relationship) generally enjoy greater health. Damasio even makes the argument that religious beliefs and practices function to ensure that humans are sociable and thus enjoy more stable vitality. That is what feelings and culture do for us.
Damasio sees such phenomena as basic to life, i.e., evident throughout different evolutionary complexity. Bacteria in a resource rich environment that enables easy homeostasis go their own individual ways, but in a resource poor one they clump together for support. Some use chemical signaling to monitor how many conspecifics are around just in case. Likewise, human “cultural instruments first developed in response to the homeostatic needs of individuals and of groups”. Damasio understands that “feeling and subjectivity are old abilities” and not dependent upon the evolution of brains with cortex.
He gives a complex and sophisticated explanation of how our mental subjectivity developed. He says that the basic unit of the mind is the image and that our particular (I want to say ‘special’ but this is fraught with anthropocentric connotations. I would mean ‘special’ in the sense that it denotes a feature specific to a species. Thus I could also write about the special feelings and subjectivity of planaria) subjectivity comes from our talent for imaging our own internal workings, e.g. our gut has an enteric 2ndbrain with many neurons and more dopamine, and our external world, and then integrating the two into one mental image of our experience as we incidentally form a narrative with our feelings as our life unfolds. I must say this is a rich and concise formulation of our mentality.
I see life functioning to mitigate exigencies and exploit chance; that is what we animate beings do (this following Heraclitus and Monod). Damasio formulates it slightly differently, that life sustains itself by countering, i.e., he says ‘resisting’, entropy and continuing the life stream into the future. And he emphasizes that our humanity is yet another iteration of this. “In the end human creativity is rooted in life and in the breath taking fact that life comes equipped with a breathtaking mandate: resist and project itself into the future”.
This book covers a great deal of scientific and philosophical ground and that gives me plenty to ponder and learn. Damasio is a big fan of Spinoza (see his earlier book on this) and he also cites Nietzsche saying that humans are “hybrids of plants and ghosts”. That is a lovely and funny metaphor. Damasio discusses our evolution and appreciates our control of fire not just to cook food and so support our homeostasis that way but also to provide the hearth environment for socializing and so support our vitality thusly. One more point: he discusses anger as a negative emotion that has functioned quite well and adaptively over the course of our evolution but asserts that it now poses diminishing returns for our species, i.e., our anger is more destructive of our ability to live together than constructive in maintaining our lives.
An interesting and richly rewarding read. Keeping with my tradition, I will mention a small quibble about how he verbalizes sometimes about the relation our brains have with our somas, e.g., our brains as independent units. Ugh! Never will I succumb to that view, nor does Damasio, I think, as he discusses the embodiment of our minds. Why use that phrasing? I do not know. Apart from that I found myself extending his analyses by formulating what he wrote into how I see our individual minds as a function of our social and cultural group. That, however, suits my purposes, not his, which was to enrich our impoverished understanding of emotions and feelings. Wonderful.